Can a man get prostate cancer from hpv
Human papillomavirus is the most common, sexually transmitted infection there is and the main cause of genital warts. Men demonstrate specific symptoms once they have the virus. Human papillomavirus HPV affects the skin and moist membranes that line the body. It is a group of more than viruses, and different types of HPV occur in different areas of the body. HPV types 6 and 11 cause more than 90 percent of genital warts in men and women. Although most men affected by HPV do not show any symptoms, some develop growths or warts.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Prostate Cancer: What Men Need to Know
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Our Patients' Stories: Men Talk About Prostate CancerContent:
- Link between HPV infection and prostate cancer not established
- Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Men
- Is Human Papillomavirus Associated with Prostate Cancer Survival?
- Does HPV cause cancer?
- No Association Between Human Papillomavirus and Prostate Cancer
- No evidence of HPV connection to prostate cancer
- HPV and Cancer
Link between HPV infection and prostate cancer not established
Karin A. Rosenblatt, Kristine G. Wicklund, Janet L. A population-based case-control study of prostate cancer was performed in King County, Washington, in White men and Black men aged 40—64 years, between and Sexual behavior, medical history, and other potential prostate cancer risk factors were ascertained through an in-person interview. There was no relation between sexual orientation and prostate cancer, although the number of men who had sex with men was small.
Risk also increased with decreasing age at first intercourse, but this effect disappeared after adjusting for the number of female partners. No relation between lifetime frequency of sexual intercourse and risk of prostate cancer was apparent. These findings are consistent with previous studies that support an infectious etiology for prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men in the United States 1. A role for sexual behavior and associated infectious agents has been supported by some previous studies. More recent evidence also supports an infectious hypothesis for prostate cancer. Based on data from a large population-based case-control study, Hayes et al.
Compared with men who had no history of sexually transmitted diseases, men with a history of both syphilis and gonorrhea or those with three or more episodes of gonorrhea had over threefold significant elevations in risk.
However, there was no association with serologic evidence of antibodies against human papillomavirus HPV type 16 5. Most, but not all 6 , recent studies found a positive association between HPV and prostate cancer 7 — 9. Previous studies have been unable to separate out the effects of sexual behaviors and associated infectious exposures from sexual drive and activity, perhaps associated with the hormonal milieu.
In an attempt to address some of these issues, we examined medical and sexual activity factors, over a subject's lifetime, in a large population-based case-control study of middle-aged men. Caucasian and African-American men residing in King County in northwestern Washington State, aged 40—64 years, who were diagnosed with histologically confirmed prostate cancer between January 1, , and December 31, , were eligible.
We included as eligible percent of cases aged less than 60 years at diagnosis and a 75 percent random sample of those aged 60—64 years at diagnosis. Only cases with a residential telephone at the time of the cancer diagnosis were eligible because random digit dialing was the method used to select controls. During the ascertainment period, we identified 1, eligible patients and excluded on the basis of the sampling protocol. We interviewed Reasons for nonresponse included physician refusal to allow patient contact 2.
Male residents of King County, Washington, aged 40—64 years, were identified as a control group using random digit telephone dialing 10 , Controls were frequency matched to cases by age same 5-year group and recruited evenly throughout the ascertainment period of cases. During the first step of random digit dialing, complete household census information was obtained for 94 percent of the residential numbers contacted.
A total of men who met the study eligibility criteria were identified and agreed to receive information about the study. Of these, Prior to interview, all subjects signed informed consent for participation, and all study forms and procedures were approved by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Institutional Review Board.
Study subjects completed in-person interviews conducted by trained male interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Information on the following topics was elicited: social and demographic factors; physical development, height, weight, and physical activity; reproductive history; detailed medical history including genitourinary diseases, symptoms, and procedures and screening for prostate cancer; vasectomy status; family structure and cancer history; smoking and lifetime alcohol consumption; lifetime sexual history, including sexual orientation, lifetime number of male and female sexual partners, frequency of sexual intercourse, and condom use during specified age intervals; and number and type of episodes of sexually transmitted diseases.
Following the interview, subjects were asked to complete a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Tumor histologic grade was coded according to the Gleason system, with 2—4 being low grade well differentiated , 5—7 being moderate grade, and 8—10 being high grade poorly differentiated The stage at diagnosis was based on SEER summary stage and incorporated the best available clinical and pathologic information obtained within 4 months of diagnosis.
For men not undergoing radical prostatectomy, stage was based solely on clinical information. Surgical and pathologic data were incorporated into the staging for men who had radical prostatectomy. For this analysis, stage was defined as 1 localized disease confined to the prostate, 2 regional disease spread beyond the prostate, and 3 metastatic disease.
Odds ratios were calculated as estimates of the relative risk of prostate cancer associated with various parameters of medical history and sexual history age at first intercourse, number of partners, history of sexually transmitted diseases. Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios and estimate 95 percent confidence intervals around the point estimates of risk In order to evaluate whether risk related to sexual activity factors varied by tumor aggressiveness, case strata were compared with controls using polytomous logistic regression For this analysis, tumor aggressiveness was modeled as a categorical outcome.
Differences in means between cases and controls were assessed by t test, and all p values were two sided. Tests for linear trends in risk estimates were performed by constructing scored variables that were entered into logistic models as continuous covariates.
Multiplicative effect modification was evaluated by comparing the significance of the difference between models including and excluding the interaction term. Each of these variables was added one at a time to a model containing age and sexual history status to assess confounding, which was considered if the factor changed the odds ratio by more than 5 percent.
Final logistic regression models controlled for the confounding effects of age continuous , race, family history of prostate cancer, and the number of prostate-specific antigen tests within the 5 years before the reference date. The potential variation in odds ratios was also examined according to strata of age, race, and family history of prostate cancer to assess whether any subgroups experienced alterations in the odds ratio associated with the number of sexual partners and age at first sexual intercourse.
Table 1 illustrates case-control comparisons, with a higher proportion of cases being African American, having a family history of prostate cancer, and having a history of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cases reported more frequent digital rectal examinations and prostate-specific antigen tests within the 5 years before the reference date. There was no relation with religion, marital status, income, or education.
Distribution of potential confounders by prostate cancer status, Health Interview Study of Men, — There was a nonsignificant pattern of increasing risk with increasing number of sexually transmitted diseases reported table 2. Slightly elevated risks were also observed for syphilis and genital herpes, but these were not significant. No associations were observed for urethritis, genital warts, chlamydia, testicular infection, epididymitis, or prostatitis.
The infertility association was not explained by previous infection with gonorrhea not shown. Odds ratios for prostate cancer according to selected medical history variables, Health Interview Study of Men, — Adjusted for age, race, family history of prostate cancer, and number of prostate-specific antigen tests in the past 5 years. There was no relation between sexual orientation and prostate cancer risk table 3 , although the number of men who had sexual intercourse with men was small.
Odds ratios for prostate cancer according to sexual orientation, Health Interview Study of Men, — Odds ratios for prostate cancer according to age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, Health Interview Study of Men, — Adjusted for age, race, family history of prostate cancer, number of prostate-specific antigen tests in the past 5 years, and number of female sexual partners. Adjusted for age, race, family history of prostate cancer, number of prostate-specific antigen tests in the past 5 years, and age at first intercourse.
No association was observed with age-specific frequency of sexual intercourse after adjusting for the number of sexual partners. Odds ratios for prostate cancer according to age-specific number of sexual partners and sexual frequency, Health Interview Study of Men, — Reference group is men who had only one female sexual partner during the specified interval. We also examined whether tumor aggressiveness was associated with the number of sexual partners.
The reduction in risk associated with later age at first intercourse did not differ with respect to tumor aggressiveness data not shown. Odds ratios for nonaggressive and aggressive prostate cancer by number of female sexual partners, Health Interview Study of Men, — Analysis excludes eight nonaggressive and five aggressive disease cases and 12 controls with unknown number of female sexual partners, as well as one nonaggressive case and four controls with no female partners.
Adjusted for age at first intercourse, age, race, family history of prostate cancer, and number of prostate-specific antigen tests in the past 5 years. Our findings suggest that there is a direct positive relation between the number of lifetime female sexual partners and the risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men. The increased risk associated with having more than one female sexual partner was observed during most age periods evaluated. These findings are consistent with those of other studies 2 , 5 , and they suggest that sexual behavior and associated exposure to sexually transmitted agents enhance the risk of prostate cancer.
A previous study suggested that an early age at first intercourse increased the risk of prostate cancer 15 , but the investigators did not control for the potential confounding effect of the number of sexual partners. When we controlled for the number of sexual partners, the effect of early age at first intercourse disappeared. Although we did not observe a negative association with sexual frequency, we also did not observe a positive one after adjustment for the number of sexual partners.
To further examine the potential effect of hormonal exposures, we estimated the risk according to the age at which a man started shaving and the age at which full height was attained. No association was found with either of these indirect measures of hormonal status. A positive relation between circulating testosterone levels and prostate cancer incidence has been observed 18 , and serum dihydrotestosterone levels have been related to sexual activity Thus, it is possible that associations with sexual behavior may be confounded by androgen levels.
This possibility, however, has not been directly evaluated. Our findings do not implicate a specific sexually transmitted disease agent with the exception of gonorrhea in the development of prostate cancer. Some sexually transmitted diseases may have been asymptomatic and therefore underreported.
Previous studies also found an association with a history of gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases 2 , 5 , Recent studies that assessed serologic evidence of exposure to sexually transmitted diseases provide further evidence for an infectious hypothesis.
Hayes et al. Three other studies showed nonsignificant elevations in risk after exposure to HPV type 16 5 , 6 , 9 , while a fourth small study showed no association between HPV type 16 and prostate cancer 7.
The findings of these studies are interesting but await confirmation. We observed an increased risk in men who reported infertility due to a male cause. This was not explained by stratifying on whether there was a history of gonorrhea. We did not collect information on the specific cause of the infertility and therefore are not able to provide an explanation for this finding. Our study has several limitations that should be considered.
We were able to interview 82 percent of cases and 75 percent of controls. Although a sample of nonrespondents who were interviewed by telephone showed modest differences in the distributions of age, race, and education compared with respondents, these differences were not substantial enough to cause a major bias in risk estimates for the association between the number of sexual partners and prostate cancer.
We did not ask nonrespondents about sexual behaviors on the brief telephone interview. One possible reason for our findings may be recall bias, that is, cases reporting more sexual partners than controls.
However, recall bias seems unlikely because sexual frequency was not found to be associated with prostate cancer, although there was an association with the number of sexual partners. These anogenital tumors have been associated with serologic evidence of HPV infection and with a previous history of genital warts.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Men
Please read our information about coronavirus and cancer alongside this page. If you have symptoms of cancer you should still contact your doctor and go to any appointments you have. Spotting cancer early means treatment is more likely to be successful.
HPV is short for human papilloma pap-uh-LO-muh virus. HPVs are a large group of related viruses. Each virus in the group is given a number, which is called an HPV type. Most HPV types cause warts on the skin, such as on the arms, chest, hands, or feet.
Is Human Papillomavirus Associated with Prostate Cancer Survival?
Background: The role of human papillomavirus HPV in prostate cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between HPV and prostate cancer. Methods: In this case - control study, paraffin embedded and formalin fixed prostate tissues were collected from the archive of pathology laboratory, Tohid Hospital, Sanandaj, Iran. A total of 58 tissues with malignant tumors cases and 75 tissues with benign prostatic hyperplasia controls were selected. Genotypes of HPV positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. Using genotype specific primers, HPV - 18 was positive in 2 3. Conclusions: The findings of this study do not support the role of HPV in prostate cancer.
Does HPV cause cancer?
Yes, but the specific risks are different for men. HPV infection is very common, but it usually doesn't cause any signs or symptoms in either sex. Some types of HPV cause genital warts, however. Often, the body's immune system eliminates the virus without treatment within about two years. But until the virus is gone, you can spread it to your sex partners.
Two common viruses known to be associated with human cancers are both present -- and may even be collaborating with each other -- in most male prostate cancers, a new study suggests. The research involved examination of specimens of normal, malignant and benign prostate samples from Australian men. It revealed that both the human papilloma virus HPV and Epstein Barr virus EBV were present in more than half of the malignant cancers, as well as in a high proportion of benign and normal prostate samples. If HPV 18 is also associated with prostate cancers, as our research suggests, vaccinating boys may yet prove to have an unexpected direct benefit for them as well.
No Association Between Human Papillomavirus and Prostate Cancer
Karin A. Rosenblatt, Kristine G. Wicklund, Janet L.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: What is prostate cancer? - Cancer Research UK (2019)
The largest-ever study to determine whether a well-known cancer-causing virus is a risk factor for prostate cancer has found no connection between the two. According to new Public Health Sciences Division research, infection with human papillomavirus HPV , which has been linked to genital and anal cancers, doesn't increase a man's changes of developing prostate cancer. Although prostate cancer shares some risk factors with cervical, vaginal and anal cancers-tumors known to be strongly associated with prior infection with subtypes of the human papillomavirus HPV -researchers found no evidence for a link between viral strains known as HPV and HPV and prostate cancer. The study should help put to rest questions first raised in , said Dr. Janet Stanford, a PHS investigator and lead author.
No evidence of HPV connection to prostate cancer
Almost 80 million Americans are infected with the virus. About 14 million new cases are added each year. For many, the infection will go away on its own. In rare cases, HPV is a potentially serious risk factor for certain kinds of cancer. There are more than types of HPV.
Metrics details. Although high risk HPVs are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer it is not known if they have a causal role. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential role of human papilloma viruses HPVs in prostate cancer. The aims are i to investigate the presence and confirm the identity of high risk HPVs in benign prostate tissues prior to the development of HPV positive prostate cancer in the same patients, and ii to determine if HPVs are biologically active. HPV screening using standard PCR was conducted on 28 of the 52 sets of benign and later prostate cancers.
HPV and Cancer
Back to Cancer. The headline comes from the findings of a review that summarised existing research on links between the human papilloma virus HPV and prostate cancer. Despite the headlines, this wasn't research into whether the HPV vaccine could reduce the risk of prostate cancer.
Не спрашивай меня, как это случилось, - сказал он, уставившись в закрытый люк. - Но у меня такое впечатление, что мы совершенно случайно обнаружили и нейтрализовали Северную Дакоту.
- Он покачал головой, словно не веря такую удачу.
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