What is the meaning of male partner
In fact, there were zero partner-transmissions recorded in the study despite approximately 22, acts of condomless sex by gay couples. So, between these two studies there has was a combined total of over 89, acts of condomless sex occurred between gay couples with zero transmissions! A UVL allows the immune system to operate to its optimum, not only improving overall well-being but also preventing acute and other serious illnesses. A person with this level of viral suppression cannot transmit HIV to their partners, however if you still feel concerned, we recommend speaking with your doctor. Undetectable viral load is game-changing news for both poz and neg guys.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Your Body Language Reveals the Truth About Your Relationship
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Eight focus group discussions and five in-depth interviews were conducted with couples at three public health facilities and community members in the health facility catchment areas in Uganda. The study employed a grounded theory approach underpinned by the pragmatic philosophical paradigm. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, performing three levels of open, axial, and selective coding.
Participants expressed that men were engaged in PMTCT when they offered economic support by providing basic needs and finances or when they included their female partners in financial planning for the family.
Psychosocial support arose from the female participants who defined male involvement as family support, perceived societal recognition and emotional support. Further research should seek to develop and validate tools to accurately measure male partner involvement as the next step in the development of interventions to improve PMTCT outcomes. The online version of this article Uganda has the highest national adult HIV prevalence in the East African region, with an estimated national prevalence rate of 6.
Mother-to-child transmission is the most common route of infection for HIV-positive children under 5 yrs. However, adequate uptake and adherence to these interventions have been challenging for some women if their partners are unaware of or do not support their involvement.
For example, some women have refused HIV testing in PMTCT settings because their male partners had either not been present or had not given their permission [ 4 , 5 ]. In most Sub-Saharan African settings, men control the household resources and often make critical decisions that affect maternal health, including the choice of health services [ 6 ].
This has produced health services that are not welcoming of men and couples [ 7 — 10 ]. In addition, men often lack information to make informed decisions about the roles they might play in promoting overall family health, including accessing HIV prevention, care and treatment services [ 11 , 12 ].
It is hypothesized that couple testing may help increase spousal support for women to use PMTCT services, create opportunities for secondary prevention by counseling both men and women about HIV and increasing the identification and treatment of HIV infected persons [ 11 , 13 ]. It should be noted though that involving men in antenatal care or female reproductive services could have unintended negative consequences such as disempowering women and encouraging relationship disharmony or abuse [ 14 ].
However, the descriptions focus on clinic attendance and couple counselling and testing [ 21 — 23 ], and in other instances, remain indefinite and vary within different populations and contexts. This imposes challenges in developing focused interventions. Male partner involvement needs to be looked at with a broader lens that involves more than just clinic attendance [ 18 ].
Therefore, there is need to have a uniform description of male partner involvement in PMTCT to optimize the development of strategies and interventions that accommodate and enhance male engagement to improve maternal and infant HIV treatment outcomes [ 17 ]. This exploratory qualitative study employed the grounded theory approach which is used when a theory is not available to explain a process [ 24 ].
The pragmatic philosophical paradigm underpinned the study. Pragmatism is not committed to any one system of philosophy and reality [ 26 ]. This study combined two types of grounded theory by drawing liberally on the reflexive and interpretive nature of the constructivist approach by Charmaz [ 27 ] and the more structured systematic approach by Strauss and Corbin [ 28 ]. Participants were recruited from three public health facilities and the communities served by these facilities in Kampala district.
Participants were purposively selected from the public health facilities. However, in keeping with the constructivist approach, subsequent participants were identified by theoretical sampling.
Therefore, subsequent participants were purposively recruited from the community to highlight those key perspectives. Data saturation determined the number of participants recruited. The researchers recruited 61 participants from April to June The inclusion criterion was willingness to take part in the study. Participants gave individual written consent prior to voluntary participation. All participants were given the choice of participating in either in-depth interviews or focus group discussions and the majority preferred the group discussions.
Participants recruited at the health facilities were couples attending any health visit from the first trimester of pregnancy up to 18 months after birth. In Uganda, women who attend perinatal care at public health facilities with their partners are given priority for their health provider visit. For this study, the research team approached the couple immediately after they completed their health visit and directed them to a private room. The researchers explained the purpose of the study and sought their consent to take part.
The research team invited the couples to either have the interview that day, or to make an appointment to return on another day. Community members received invitations to regular community dialogues through local leaders, announcements in the local media and by word of mouth. A community dialogue is an interactive participatory communication process of sharing information between people or groups of people aimed at reaching a common understanding and workable solution [ 31 ].
The research team recruited participants from among community members who attended these dialogues. The dialogues were conducted by community health workers. The principal researcher attended all dialogues in the study area for 3 months and shared information about the study. Interested community members received more detailed information privately and selected a date for an in-depth interview or focus group discussion. Each IDI lasted 45 min to 1 hr and partners interviewed individually.
All the interviews and discussions were audio recorded with permission. Interview and discussion guides with open-ended and probing questions were used to collect data. Participants decided whether to interview in English or the local language. Data collection was an iterative process in response to evolving study findings. The researchers analyzed the data and field notes daily to decide which group of participants to enroll next and what questions to explore further.
This daily analysis also identified emergent categories for the research team to focus on. Data collection stopped when no significant new information emerged from interaction with the participants. Data were transcribed verbatim and transcripts returned to participants for comments and corrections.
A language expert translated the approved transcripts into English. The methods proposed by Strauss and Corbin, namely, open, axial and selective axial coding [ 26 , 33 ] guided manual analysis of the data. Two researchers independently coded the data, then identified and highlighted concepts along with key phrases and obtained emerging themes.
Open coding broke the data down into conceptual components, which brought order and enabled the analysis team to make initial sense of the data.
Axial coding linked the various categories and subcategories [ 34 ]. The researchers were careful to avoid compressing the data too much in order to keep the richness and distinctiveness of the findings. All text excerpts were de-identified. A sample of participants provided feedback on the findings to enhance trustworthiness and credibility of data analysis. Participants were ages 18 to 59 years, the majority 39 The meaning of male involvement is presented according to the three thematic areas, with the related codes and supporting participant narratives.
Male partners considered themselves engaged in PMTCT when they reminded their partners to take their medication and give the children their ARV medication. I remind her to take her pills and sometimes count them just to be sure. IDI with male participant 25 years, serodiscordant relationship. In addition, some female participants expressed that synchronization of the time of taking their medication may indicate male partner involvement. This is illustrated below;.
I would also be happy if we agreed on a specific time to take medication, that way if one of us misses at that time then we can easily remind the other partner.
IDI with female participant over 22 years, seroconcordant relationship. When they receive their results together, then the health worker will inform them of what they are supposed to do, and the man will be more involved and supportive. FGD with female participants 26—40 years. This included testing for HIV together, receiving counseling and testing together and finally regular re-testing for those who were in serodiscordant relationships. He should take an HIV test with me and all his other female partners to protect them.
I would feel like he is involved if he takes a test with me. A few men who defined male involvement as clinical attendance saw it as a way of support and prevention of vertical HIV transmission. This is our first pregnancy and I want to be as involved as I can be, so our baby can be born without HIV.
The first time we came for antenatal [ antenatal care health visit ], the midwife told me that the baby had a higher chance of being negative if both of us came for clinic visits and continued taking our medications. IDI with male participant 25 years.
Many of the male participants did not view pregnancy as a disease and saw no reason to go with their partners for clinic visits. Others were uncomfortable with going to the clinic as illustrated below;. There is really no reason for me to go there, I can take her to deliver or if she is sick. FGD with male participants 26—40 years. On the other hand, some of the female participants felt that their partners were involved when they escorted them to the clinic and reminded them of their clinic visit days.
This also included organizing transport to the clinic and sitting with them at the clinic instead of waiting outside. FGD with female participants 18—25 years. Yes, while coming with me to the clinic is good, he comes and stands outside until it is time for us to go. I can understand because it is not comfortable for him to sit there among all those other women, but he misses out on the information they give us. FGD with female participant 26—40 years.
Some participants also wanted their male partners to have their own clinic visits scheduled on the same days as their ANC visits so that they could attend together. I feel like he is involved when we do everything related to HIV together during pregnancy.
I would be glad if the health workers could help us and make our clinic days fall on the same day, that way we can all receive care as a family. IDI with a female participant, 22 years. Both female and male participants defined male partner involvement in terms of economic support, which comprised provision of needs, financial provision and financial planning. Male participants expressed that buying food and clothing and providing house rent and money for treatment when their partner or child fell ill was an indication of engagement and support.
When any of them are sick, or when she needs to go for her check-up, I make sure I manage all that.
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Currently, male involvement in PMTCT is measured primarily through men's attendance at HIV testing and counselling which may not be a true reflection of their engagement. This study therefore set out to explore the meaning of male partner involvement and propose a definition and theoretical model of this concept in PMTCT in Uganda. METHODS: Eight focus group discussions and five in-depth interviews were conducted with couples at three public health facilities and community members in the health facility catchment areas in Uganda. The study employed a grounded theory approach underpinned by the pragmatic philosophical paradigm. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, performing three levels of open, axial, and selective coding.
Male partners’ involvement in pregnancy related care among married men in Ibadan, Nigeria
Top definition. The individual in a business setting most likely to screw you over. We just signed a new contract with out supplier partners. Urban altern-a-chicks and Metrosexuals don't have boyfriends, girlfriends, significant others, husbands, wives, fuck-buddies, etc. They have 'Partners'. A 'Partner' is very similar to a boyfriend or girlfriend, but is not a boyfriend or girl friend. If you call someone's 'Partner' a 'boyfriend' or a 'girlfriend', you will be corrected "no, Callum is my 'Partner'". It is not uncommon for a male 'partner' to undergo sympathy cramps while the female partner is menstruating.
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Metrics details. This study therefore set out to explore the meaning of male partner involvement and propose a definition and theoretical model of this concept in PMTCT in Uganda. Eight focus group discussions and five in-depth interviews were conducted with couples at three public health facilities and community members in the health facility catchment areas in Uganda. The study employed a grounded theory approach underpinned by the pragmatic philosophical paradigm.
We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. Maternal death remains a public health burden in the developing countries including Nigeria and the major causes are pregnancy related.
A boyfriend is a male friend or acquaintance , often specifying a regular male companion with whom one is platonic , romantically or sexually involved. A boyfriend can also be called an admirer, beau, suitor and sweetheart. Partners in committed non-marital relationships are also sometimes described as a significant other or partner ,  especially if the individuals are cohabiting. Boyfriend and partner mean different things to different people; the distinctions between the terms are subjective. How the term is used will ultimately be determined by personal preference. A study of people ages 21 to 35 who were either living with or had lived with a romantic partner notes that the lack of proper terms often leads to awkward situations, such as someone upset over not being introduced in social situations to avoid the question.
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To save this word, you'll need to log in. Yeats husband. Thursday, May 7, Why didn't authorities fully investigate? Send us feedback.
- Уже обо всем пронюхали. Сьюзан отвернулась от экрана ВР к боковому монитору. На нем бесконечно повторялась видеозапись убийства Танкадо.
И всякий раз Танкадо хватался за грудь, падал и с выражение ужаса на лице навязывал кольцо ничего не подозревающим туристам.
В этот момент кровать громко заскрипела: клиент Росио попытался переменить позу. Беккер повернулся к нему и заговорил на беглом немецком: - Noch etwas. Что-нибудь. Что помогло бы мне найти девушку, которая взяла кольцо.
У нас имеется пять уровней защиты, - объяснял Джабба.
Беккер повернулся к панку. - Этот тарантас когда-нибудь остановится. - Еще пять миль. - Куда мы едем. Парень расплылся в широкой улыбке.
В свете дневных ламп он увидел красноватые и синеватые следы в ее светлых волосах. - Т-ты… - заикаясь, он перевел взгляд на ее непроколотые уши, - ты, случайно, серег не носила. В ее глазах мелькнуло подозрение. Она достала из кармана какой-то маленький предмет и протянула. Беккер увидел в ее руке сережку в виде черепа.
Девушка наконец нашла то, что искала, - газовый баллончик для самозащиты, экологически чистый аналог газа мейс, сделанный из острейшего кайенского перца и чили.
Одним быстрым движением она выпрямилась, выпустила струю прямо в лицо Беккеру, после чего схватила сумку и побежала к двери. Когда она оглянулась, Дэвид Беккер лежал на полу, прижимая ладони к лицу и корчась от нестерпимого жжения в глазах.